Stands as an integral part phytocenoses
Basic and specific unit phytocenoses is the stands. That is, for example- part of the forest, homogeneous floristic composition and structure, approximately the same level of development, which could be conditionally say that is environmentally autonomous in the strict sense. It has all the essential features of forest plant communities. As fir in nature has more individual, so one forest of fir and spruce has more stands, which has more should be the basis for the study of this type of forest.
Size of stands can be different: the smallest (20x20m), the largest (40x30m).
One mountain beech forest on the slope of the ridge to the flattened areas at the foot of the slopes, can be divided into three stands: in the ridge, in the middle, and at the bottom in the flat part.
Beside the drab stands, in nature we encounter:
- Mixture – between two or more phytocoenoses occur where basic environmental factors is not enough expressed (unevenness of the terrain, blending substrates, etc.).
- Crossings – occur on the stand touches two or more phytocoenoses, so kind of wider amplitude crossing from one stand to another.
- Mosaics (to complexes) – on a small territory, alternating typically developed stands of two or more phytocoenoses.
Types of trees that dominate the floor of the trees and build a stand called edificators.
Method study of plant communities – analytical processing
It is used phytocoenologically school methods Braun – Blanquet, whereby analyze the floristic composition and structure of forest stands, habitat conditions and level of development. Phytocoenologically form should contain:
- NUMBERS SPECIES (abundance) – label for the number of specimens of each type.
- COVER SERIES (domination) – degree of cover.
It is commonly used six-speed scale combined estimates of the number and coverage:
5- covers 75-100% of the area
4- covers 50-75% of the area
3- covers 25-50% of the area
2- there is very abundant and covers 10-25% of the area
1- there is abundant and covers an area of 1-10%
+- has a few specimens and cover her is minor (<1%)
- UNITY – indication of whether the species growing in small or large groups.
5 – grows in large groups (stands)
4 – grow in groups, group selection
3 – grows in the form of small pillows or in small heaps
2 – grows in clod, per more specimens together
1 – grow individually
- FREQUENCY – some species in stands is determined as a percentage of species in a certain number of shots, regardless of its abundance and cover them.
- VITALITY – usually does not determine when vegetation research, but the mark of poor health denotes with ° for example 1.1°.
- STRATIFICATION – the existence of layers of vegetation is best expressed in forest ecosystems. Some systems may be well developed and are characterized by the micro characteristics, and by some authors consider the so-called independent units. Usually we distinguish between two floors of trees, shrubs three floors, two floors plants and etc.
- PHENOLOGY – the phenomenon of development, flowering, fruiting of different types at different times.
- LOOK (ASPECT) phytocenoses – spring, summer, autumn and winter aspect.
- LIFE FORMS PLANT – Raunkiaer adjusting plant to survive most unfavorable period: phanerophytes, chamaephytes, hemicryptophytes, geophytes and therophytes, helophytes, hydrophytes, epiphytes, and aerophytes nanophanerophytes.